MINUTES OF INTERROGATION - The City of Stalino
17 November 1949
I, the deputy director of the Department in the Investigations Division of the State Ministry
of Defense in the District of Stalino
, interrogated the accused
Nikolai Antonevitch Pavli, born 1921
, in the village of
in the area of Marinsk
, District of
, Ukrainian, USSR citizen,
of peasant stock, working as a replacement civil engineer in the agricultural department
of the General Council in the area of Mizewski
in the District of
, not a party member, married, secondary education,
served in the Soviet army from 5/X/40 to 16/VII/41
2/VII/45 to 21/V/46
, has no state decorations, no criminal past.
Before arrest, he lived in the village of Kamanka, Lenin Street
, area of
, District of Dniepropetrowsk
Arrested by the State Ministry of Defense of the Stalino
10 November 1949
Question: Specify the circumstances under which you were captured by enemy forces in July 1941
Answer: While I was a range soldier of a 120 mm. battery in artillery regiment 115, division 75,
at the time of military activity in the direction of the city of Kowil
our unit was surrounded by the enemy. His unit tried to break through in the direction of our forces
but was unsuccessful and after this everyone split up in different directions with the objective
of reaching our forces in groups.
I and the soldier Rafalnikow
(I do not recall his forename or his father's name) advanced
on our own. On the way, a vehicle 11-1 stood on the road, having been abandoned by
retreating Soviet forces. I know how to drive and, together with Rafalnikow
we tried to start the vehicle and continue in the direction, but we were suddenly overtaken
by German soldiers; a German officer took from us the rifle - carbine, and under guard we
were led to the township of Powursk
and were put into a house where there were already 20 prisoners of war.
The next morning, all the prisoners, including myself, were taken to a township (I do
not recall its name), from where we were put onto trucks and taken to a prisoner of
war camp in the town of Lutsk
. Three days later, I was taken with
a large number of prisoners of war to a railway station (I do not recall its name) and by
car, we were led to a prisoner's camp in Poland.
At the prisoner-of-war camp in the town of Chelm
, I was held until
. The Germans used me as the other prisoners for various work within the
camp. Later together with a number of people, I was conscripted by the Germans to serve
in the SS force at the Trawniki
command, as a Wachmann
of the SS.
Question: Under what circumstances were you conscripted by Germans to serve in the
SS force at the Trawniki
Answer: I was conscripted by Germans for the SS forces in the following circumstances:
About 26 September 1941
, a German officer of the SS forces, Oberscharf
(I do not know his forename or his father's name) came to the
prisoners' camp in the city of Chelm
and ordered the camp command to
hold a parade of the prisoners in the camp. When the soldiers were arranged on parade, he,
and an interpreter among the prisoners (I do not know his surname,
forename, or father's name), passed through the parade and the said officer -
, selected, according to his considerations, from
among the prisoners, asking them about their origins.
I told him that I was from Donbass and after that I was taken aside. A group of prisoners of
war who had been chosen stood there. After 60 people had been selected, myself among
them, no-one told us for what purpose we had been selected. Subsequently the group that had
been selected, including myself, was put on two trucks and taken to the
Upon our arrival at the Trawniki
concentration camp, we were located in a
building within the camp. For a month we were not used for work, but just fed; we
underwent a period of isolation.
After a month, we were divided into groups and began to hold basic training. Each
company had about 60 people and at that time there were 6 such companies. Germans -
from the Germans of Russia, held the military training with us.
Question: What did they teach you, what subjects?
Answer: They taught me and the others basic training and use of weapons -
rifle and the rules for guarding prisoners. They did not teach us other subjects.
We studied at the school for Wachmann
s of the SS. I took part in guard duties at the
camp; at that time there were no prisoners at the camp.
During the training at the Trebnicki
October or November 1941
each of us was interrogated by a member of the camp command, filled in a form - questionnaire
that was later signed by him and gave a thumb print; then each of us was granted the
title of Wachmann
of the SS.
In November 1941
, I was sent as part of a group of 40 Wachmann
s of the SS for further
service at the Belzec
death camp, where I continued to serve as a Wachmann
Being an SS Wachmann
at the Belzec
death camp, I guarded all the
time imprisoned civilians who were brought by the Germans from various conquered countries
for extermination in special gas chambers "bath-houses", through suffocation gas.
The prisoners from various conquered countries would arrive by train to the Belzec
under the guard of Wachmann
s and Germans the prisoners would be taken off the
trains and from there led to the gas chambers, where Wachmann
s and Germans would
force the prisoners to undress naked, irrespective of their sex, including children.
Afterwards they would be put into the gas chambers - "bath-houses", the doors would be
hermetically closed. By the building with the gas chambers was located the machinery division
with an internal combustion engine, from which the exhaust gas would be piped to the chambers
in which the prisoners were killed. After about 15-20 minutes, the gas chambers would be
opened and work details consisting of Jewish prisoners would remove the bodies, load them
on a special cart and take them to special pits that had been dug in advance. There the bodies
would be arranged; as the pit filled up, work details would cover it with earth.
My participation in extermination of the people was expressed in that on a regular basis
I guarded the prisoners. When the trains arrived, I would guard the prisoners during their
disembarkation from the train, I ensured that none of the prisoners would escape. I also
accompanied the prisoners under guard to the place where they were undressed. I
guarded the clothes while other Wachmann
s and Germans would take the prisoners
into the gas chambers. I also guarded the work details when they were engaging in
unloading bodies by the pits.
Apart from that, I guarded the pit to which they would bring people for execution by shooting,
from among the prisoners who had arrived by train, since on every train there were sick
prisoners. Those who could not walk to the death camp by themselves were led by Jewish
prisoners to a pit and there a German officer would shoot them with a pistol.
From every train, about 20-30 people would be shot, depending on the number of the sick.
During my service as an SS Wachmann
at the Belzec
40,000 people-prisoners were put to death, most of them through suffocation gas.
In August 1942
, I was sent as part of a group of 30 SS Wachmann
s for further
service at another death camp, Sobibor, Lublin
command. At the
death camp, I performed the same service as at the
death camp -
I guarded imprisoned civilians that had been brought from conquered countries by Germans
for destruction in the gas chambers - also by suffocation gas from an engine.
During my service as an SS Wachmann
at the Sobibor
death camp, as I testified previously, I guarded imprisoned civilians when the trains would
arrive, I guarded in order to prevent prisoners from escaping. I accompanied them under guard
to the camp for extermination. Similarly, I took part in surrounding the pits to which
the infirm and sick would be brought by cart in order to put them to death by shooting.
I personally did not shoot at prisoners. A German officer of the SS shot them. I and the other
s only had to stand around the pit at the time of the shooting.
Apart from that, I guarded the prisoners within the camp and also on the watch
towers around the camp.
Sometimes the Germans would take advantage of the prisoners who had been brought to
the death camp for various jobs - wood work in the forest, and it might fall to me to accompany
them to the work site. I guarded them during the work and afterwards back to the death camp.
As I have noted, the extermination of people at the Sobibor
was undertaken by suffocation gas and also by shooting.
The bodies of the people who had been put to death by gas or had been shot were arranged
in pits on a special surface by work details by the rail lines and burned. As an
, I also guarded the work details.
In November 1942
, I was sent in a group of 30 Wachmann
s through the
concentration camp command to the city of
together with other Wachmann
s I guarded imprisoned civilians. I accompanied them
to various jobs and back. The prisoners were utilized for various jobs, in the wood
processing plant, on a farm, in demolishing houses that had been destroyed, etc. I served as a
in the SS force in the city of Lublin
until October 1943
In October 1943
, I was sent in a group of 60 SS Wachmann
s through the
concentration camp command for further service in the SS forces
at a concentration camp in Flossenbürg
(Germany) where I guarded prisoners and
accompanied them under guard to construction work at the aviation plant of the
. and also other work.
Being an SS Wachmann
at a concentration camp in the township of
, I, as the other Wachmann
s of the SS, was given
an SS tattoo for a medical examination. I removed the letter in 1945
with the aid of a burning cigarette after the defeat of the German forces because I was
afraid of punishment for my crimes. I served in the SS forces of the concentration camp in
the township of Flossenbürg
until March 1944
In March 1944
, I was sent for further service in the SS forces at a camp in the village of
, where I also guarded imprisoned civilians who were utilized by
the Germans for work in Germany military warehouses, at a brick-works and within the camp.
As the front drew near, I engaged with the other SS Wachmann
s in evacuation of
prisoners to the rear, but with the approach of the American forces, all the Wachmann
of the SS and the prisoners fled in various directions. On the way, I and the SS Wachmann
(I don't remember his forename or father's name)
changed our uniforms for civilian clothes in some township (I don't know its name).
When the American forces entered, I, as many Soviet citizens, was sent to a transit camp in the
township of Walkhuri
with the aim of returning me to my country,
among many Soviet citizens who had been taken by the Germans for work in Germany, I was
transferred by the American forces in trucks to the area of Czechoslovakia that was under
the control of the Soviet forces (I do not recall the city). Afterwards, with many others,
I was sent on foot to a camp of Soviet citizens designated for immigration to the homeland
in the city of Zwettel
from this camp, in June 1945
I was conscripted for service in the Soviet Army in which I served until 31 May 1946
Question: When and where did the conversation take place between you and representatives
of the American military authorities before your departure for the area controlled by the Soviet forces?
Answer: Being in the area of deployment of the American forces, representatives of
the military forces held no conversation with me.
Question: Give names of people who served with you in the SS forces at the
Trawniki, Belzec, Sobibor
death camps, and at other camps.
Answer: The following people served together with me in the SS forces at the death camps:
1. Ivan Werdenik
(I don't know his father's name),
born 1921 / 22
Ukrainian, I don't know his place of origin, served in the Soviet army as a soldier, was captured
by the Germans in 1941
. Being a prisoner in the city of
he was conscripted by Germans in October 1941
to the SS forces.
He underwent together with me in the SS forces at the Trawniki
concentration camp, Lublin
command the basic training, use of weapons
and studied the rules of guard-duty. In March 1942
he was sent, together with
me, for further service in the SS forces to the Belzec
command (Poland), where he served as an SS Wachmann
August 1942. From August 1942 until November 1942
he served together with
me as an SS Wachmann
at the Sobibor
command. In November 1942
I was sent for further service at another camp while Werdenik
continued to serve in the SS forces at Sobibor
As an SS Wachmann
guarded at the death
camps of Belzec
prisoners who had been brought by Germans from various conquered countries for extermination in the gas chambers
through gas. He participated in the extermination of Jews in that he guarded the trains that
would arrive with the prisoners. He guarded the pit where the executions by shooting were carried out.
Distringuishing marks: Medium height, demonic, round face, straight nose, on left arm
under the armpit he has an SS tattoo. I do not recall other marks.
2. Andrei Vassilega
(I don't know his father's name), born
, Ukrainian, I do not know his place of origin. Before the war, he worked
as a tailor in the city of Stalino
. Served in the
Soviet Army, captured by Germans in 1941
September / October 1941
he was conscripted by Germans to the SS forces at the Trebnicki
death camp, Lublin
command (Poland), as an SS Wachmann
At the Trawniki
concentration camp, he worked as a tailor for the SS forces.
I saw him at Petrowska
. I visited his home. In
he worked as a cutter at a sewing shop. According to rumours from people,
I knew that he had been indicted.
3. Alexander Feodorowitch Tityebski
born 1917 / 18
resident of the District of Stalino
, doctor by profession, served in
the Soviet army, was captured by the Germans in 1941
. While in captivity was
conscripted to the SS force at the Trawniki
command (Poland) as an SS Wachmann
. Afterwards, he served as the camp doctor.
I do not know his present whereabouts.
Distinguishing marks: Medium height, demonic, upright stature, round face,
stright nose, I do not recall other marks.
Confirmation: Nikolai Antonovitch Pavli, born 1921
, was found guilty on
23 December 1949
by a military tribunal of the
according to Section 54-1 "B" of the Penal Code of the Soviet Republic of
Ukraine and sentenced to 25 years imprisonment in labor camps.
The photocopy was made from a copy in Criminal File (in the archives) No. 56434
(Vol. 2, pp. 118-121) versus Guncherov P.N., Sherbak, N.K.
Director of the Office of the USSR Attorney-General - A.P. Vladimirov
Stamp - the Attorney-General of the USSR
Source: Shofar FTP Archives